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They're all important! But if one had to hone in on essential ones to understand before attempting resilient software, I'd propose starting with getting the following under your belt:

* IT:AD:Patterns:DDD: the most important pattern an application architect can learn. * Entities * IT:AD:Patterns:Tier Strategy * IT:AD:Patterns:SASS

* Usability:

* Security:

* API:

* Testability:

* Modularity:

* Maintainability:

* Responsiveness:

  • Abstract Factory: Creates an instance of several families of classes. Provide an interface for creating families of related or dependent objects without specifying their concrete classes.
  • IT:AD:Patterns:Builder: Separates object construction from its representation. Separate the construction of a complex object from its representation so that the same construction processes can create different representations.
  • Factory Method: Creates an instance of several derived classes. Define an interface for creating an object, but let subclasses decide which class to instantiate. Factory Method lets a class defer instantiation to subclasses.
  • IT:AD:Patterns:Prototype: A fully initialized instance to be copied or cloned. Specify the kinds of objects to create using a prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying this prototype.
  • Singleton: A class of which only a single instance can exist. Ensure a class only has one instance, and provide a global point of access to it.
  • IT:AD:Patterns:Adapter: Match interfaces of different classes.Convert the interface of a class into another interface clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that couldn’t otherwise because of incompatible interfaces.
  • IT:AD:Patterns:Adapter: Separates an object’s interface from its implementation. Decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently.
  • Composite: A tree structure of simple and composite objects. Compose objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies. Composite lets clients treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly.
  • Decorator: Add responsibilities to objects dynamically. Attach additional responsibilities to an object dynamically. Decorators provide a flexible alternative to subclassing for extending functionality.
  • Facade: A single class that represents an entire subsystem. Provide a unified interface to a set of interfaces in a system. Facade defines a higher-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use.
  • Flyweight: A fine-grained instance used for efficient sharing. Use sharing to support large numbers of fine-grained objects efficiently. A flyweight is a shared object that can be used in multiple contexts simultaneously. The flyweight acts as an independent object in each context — it’s indistinguishable from an instance of the object that’s not shared.
  • Proxy: An object representing another object. Provide a surrogate or placeholder for another object to control access to it.

* Chain of Responsibility: A way of passing a request between a chain of objects. Avoid coupling the sender of a request to its receiver by giving more than one object a chance to handle the request. Chain the receiving objects and pass the request along the chain until an object handles it. * IT:AD:Patterns:Command Pattern: Encapsulate a command request as an object. Encapsulate a request as an object, thereby letting you parameterize clients with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations. * Interpreter: A way to include language elements in a program. Given a language, define a representation for its grammar along with an interpreter that uses the representation to interpret sentences in the language. * Iterator: Sequentially access the elements of a collection. Provide a way to access the elements of an aggregate object sequentially without exposing its underlying representation. * Mediator: Defines simplified communication between classes. Define an object that encapsulates how a set of objects interact. Mediator promotes loose coupling by keeping objects from referring to each other explicitly, and it lets you vary their interaction independently. * Memento: Capture and restore an object's internal state. Without violating encapsulation, capture and externalize an object’s internal state so that the object can be restored to this state later. * Observer: A way of notifying change to a number of classes. Define a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. * State: Alter an object's behavior when its state changes. Allow an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. The object will appear to change its class. * Strategy: Encapsulates an algorithm inside a class. Define a family of algorithms, encapsulate each one, and make them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it. * Template: Defer the exact steps of an algorithm to a subclass. Define the skeleton of an algorithm in an operation, deferring some steps to subclasses. Template Method lets subclasses redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm’s structure. * Visitor: Defines a new operation to a class without change. Represent an operation to be performed on the elements of an object structure. Visitor lets you define a new operation without changing the classes of the elements on which it operates. I must also mention and credit goes to for the most of the above information.

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