IT:AD:cURL

Summary

Command line tool to perform HTTP requests to a service.

curl is a command line tool for transferring data with URL syntax, supporting DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, Gopher, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, Telnet and TFTP. curl supports SSL certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading, HTTP form based upload, proxies, cookies, user+password authentication (Basic, Digest, NTLM, Negotiate, kerberos...), file transfer resume, proxy tunneling and a busload of other tricks.

Examples of use would be:

  • automated tests of POX or REST services.
  • uploading data or file to a remote service

Process

Download

Installation

The download is a single *.exe. Copy it to your c:\Windows\ directory (or add it to the PATH) so that it can be found, and not get an error message from the command line:

'curl.exe' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file.

Usage

Open a Console (using Start/Run/cmd) Type cURL and one or more of the switches as described below.

Tutorial

A tutorial that will get you started, from which I've alread extracted most of the examples that follow.

Examples

Get help:

-h, --help          This help text
curl.exe -h

Verb:GET a page (just body, no headers):

curl.exe http://skysigal.com

In some scenarios, (eg: http://skysigal.com) you may not be seeing the same response as what you would see within a browser. That's because you were sent a redirect 302 that curl won't follow until you add the --location flag:

-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
curl.exe -L http://skysigal.com

Verb:GET a page (with headers):

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
curl.exe -v -L -i http://skysigal.com 

Verb:GET just the headers:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
 -I, --head          Show document info only
curl.exe -v -L -I http://skysigal.com 

Verb:GET with parameters:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
curl.exe -v -L http://skysigal.com?v=1&v=2

Verb:POST (using Content-Type application/x-www-form-urlencoded):

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
curl.exe -v -L -d "v=John%20Smith&v=2" http://skysigal.com 

Verb:POST (using Content-Type application/x-www-form-urlencoded, and encoding being done for you):

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
--data-urlencode DATA  HTTP POST data url encoded (H)
curl.exe -v -L --data-urlencode "v1=John Smith&v2=2" http://skysigal.com 

Verb:POST (using Content-Type multipart/form-data):

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-F, --form CONTENT  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
curl.exe -v -L -F myuploadfieldname={localfilename} -F mysubmitbtnname=OK http://skysigal.com

Verb:PUT to a file:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
curl.exe -v -L -X PUT  -data ... http://skysigal.com

Content-Type:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
curl.exe -v -L --header "Content-Type: text/xml"

Content-Type & Accept:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
curl.exe -v -L --header "Content-Type: text/xml" -H "Accept:application/json" -X POST -d "<xml>...</xml>"

Basic Authentication:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-u, --user USER[:PASSWORD]  Server user and password
curl.exe -v -L -u name:pwd http://skysigal.com

Proxy & Proxy User

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port
-U, --proxy-user USER[:PASSWORD]  Proxy user and password
curl.exe -v -L -x myproxy --proxy-user user:pwd http://skysigal.com
curl.exe -v -L -x myproxy --U user:pwd http://skysigal.com

Allow redirection (eg for a PRG)

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
curl.exe -v --location -X POST ....
curl.exe -v -L -X POST ....

Cookies:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
-b, --cookie STRING/FILE  String or file to read cookies from (H)
curl.exe -v -L --cookie "name=xyz" ....

Certificates:

See tutorial

CURL With WebAPI

Verb:GET:

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
curl.exe -v -i -H "Accept:application/json" http://skysigal.com/MyService/13 

Verb:POST, sending JSON

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
-X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
-d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
curl.exe -v -H "Content-Type: application/json" -H "Accept:application/json" -X POST -d '{\"screencast\":{\"subject\":\"tools\"}}' http://skysigal.com/myService

Verb:PUT, sending JSON

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
-X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
-d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
curl.exe -v -H "Content-Type: application/json" -H "Accept:application/json" -X PUT -data '{\"screencast\":{\"subject\":\"tools\"}}' http://skysigal.com/myService        

Verb:DELETE, sending JSON

-v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
-i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
curl.exe -v -i X -H "Accept:application/json" DELETE http://skysigal.com/MyService/13 

More examples

Example for proxy:

# Upload IPA to TestFlight
-F, --form CONTENT  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
curl -U $USER:$password -x kbproxy.corp.bank.nzpfs.co.nz:8080 http://testflightapp.com/api/builds.json \
     -F file=@$currentDir/kiwibank.ipa \
     -F api_token='522a258c6954cf0fe7539ecbfe318023_MzUzMzI4MjAxMi0wMy0xMiAxNjowNTo0Ni42NzU4...' \
     -F team_token='e2056e8b707fe6e4d66acdd36b747e51_MzQwMjEyMDExLTEwLTExIDE5OjEzOjEyLjkwMDM...' \
     -F notes='Auto-build 2: Return of Auto-build' \
     -F notify=True \
     -F distribution_lists='SIT'

Syntax

Common:

 -b, --cookie STRING/FILE  String or file to read cookies from (H)
 -d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
 -G, --get           Send the -d data with a HTTP GET (H)
 -H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
 -I, --head          Show document info only
 -i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
 -L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
     --basic         Use HTTP Basic Authentication (H)
     --ntlm          Use HTTP NTLM authentication (H)
 -o, --output FILE   Write output to <file> instead of stdout
 -x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port
     --proxy-anyauth Pick "any" proxy authentication method (H)
     --proxy-basic   Use Basic authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-negotiate Use Negotiate authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-ntlm    Use NTLM authentication on the proxy (H)
 -U, --proxy-user USER[:PASSWORD]  Proxy user and password
 -x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port
 -X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
 -u, --user USER[:PASSWORD]  Server user and password
 -v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
 

Full:

C:\Users\Sky>curl http://skysigal.com/ -h
Usage: curl [options...] <url>
Options: (H) means HTTP/HTTPS only, (F) means FTP only
     --anyauth       Pick "any" authentication method (H)
 -a, --append        Append to target file when uploading (F/SFTP)
     --basic         Use HTTP Basic Authentication (H)
     --cacert FILE   CA certificate to verify peer against (SSL)
     --capath DIR    CA directory to verify peer against (SSL)
 -E, --cert CERT[:PASSWD] Client certificate file and password (SSL)
     --cert-type TYPE Certificate file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)
     --ciphers LIST  SSL ciphers to use (SSL)
     --compressed    Request compressed response (using deflate or gzip)
 -K, --config FILE   Specify which config file to read
     --connect-timeout SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for connection
 -C, --continue-at OFFSET  Resumed transfer offset
 -b, --cookie STRING/FILE  String or file to read cookies from (H)
 -c, --cookie-jar FILE  Write cookies to this file after operation (H)
     --create-dirs   Create necessary local directory hierarchy
     --crlf          Convert LF to CRLF in upload
     --crlfile FILE  Get a CRL list in PEM format from the given file
 -d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
     --data-ascii DATA  HTTP POST ASCII data (H)
     --data-binary DATA  HTTP POST binary data (H)
     --data-urlencode DATA  HTTP POST data url encoded (H)
     --delegation STRING GSS-API delegation permission
     --digest        Use HTTP Digest Authentication (H)
     --disable-eprt  Inhibit using EPRT or LPRT (F)
     --disable-epsv  Inhibit using EPSV (F)
 -D, --dump-header FILE  Write the headers to this file
     --egd-file FILE  EGD socket path for random data (SSL)
     --engine ENGINGE  Crypto engine (SSL). "--engine list" for list
 -f, --fail          Fail silently (no output at all) on HTTP errors (H)
 -F, --form CONTENT  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
     --form-string STRING  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
     --ftp-account DATA  Account data string (F)
     --ftp-alternative-to-user COMMAND  String to replace "USER [name]" (F)
     --ftp-create-dirs  Create the remote dirs if not present (F)
     --ftp-method [MULTICWD/NOCWD/SINGLECWD] Control CWD usage (F)
     --ftp-pasv      Use PASV/EPSV instead of PORT (F)
 -P, --ftp-port ADR  Use PORT with given address instead of PASV (F)
     --ftp-skip-pasv-ip Skip the IP address for PASV (F)
     --ftp-pret      Send PRET before PASV (for drftpd) (F)
     --ftp-ssl-ccc   Send CCC after authenticating (F)
     --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode ACTIVE/PASSIVE  Set CCC mode (F)
     --ftp-ssl-control Require SSL/TLS for ftp login, clear for transfer (F)
 -G, --get           Send the -d data with a HTTP GET (H)
 -g, --globoff       Disable URL sequences and ranges using {} and []
 -H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
 -I, --head          Show document info only
 -h, --help          This help text
     --hostpubmd5 MD5  Hex encoded MD5 string of the host public key. (SSH)
 -0, --http1.0       Use HTTP 1.0 (H)
     --ignore-content-length  Ignore the HTTP Content-Length header
 -i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
 -k, --insecure      Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)
     --interface INTERFACE  Specify network interface/address to use
 -4, --ipv4          Resolve name to IPv4 address
 -6, --ipv6          Resolve name to IPv6 address
 -j, --junk-session-cookies Ignore session cookies read from file (H)
     --keepalive-time SECONDS  Interval between keepalive probes
     --key KEY       Private key file name (SSL/SSH)
     --key-type TYPE Private key file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)
     --krb LEVEL     Enable Kerberos with specified security level (F)
     --libcurl FILE  Dump libcurl equivalent code of this command line
     --limit-rate RATE  Limit transfer speed to this rate
 -l, --list-only     List only names of an FTP directory (F)
     --local-port RANGE  Force use of these local port numbers
 -L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
     --location-trusted like --location and send auth to other hosts (H)
 -M, --manual        Display the full manual
     --mail-from FROM  Mail from this address
     --mail-rcpt TO  Mail to this receiver(s)
     --mail-auth AUTH  Originator address of the original email
     --max-filesize BYTES  Maximum file size to download (H/F)
     --max-redirs NUM  Maximum number of redirects allowed (H)
 -m, --max-time SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for the transfer
     --metalink      Process given URLs as metalink XML file
     --negotiate     Use HTTP Negotiate Authentication (H)
 -n, --netrc         Must read .netrc for user name and password
     --netrc-optional Use either .netrc or URL; overrides -n
     --netrc-file FILE  Set up the netrc filename to use
 -N, --no-buffer     Disable buffering of the output stream
     --no-keepalive  Disable keepalive use on the connection
     --no-sessionid  Disable SSL session-ID reusing (SSL)
     --noproxy       List of hosts which do not use proxy
     --ntlm          Use HTTP NTLM authentication (H)
 -o, --output FILE   Write output to <file> instead of stdout
     --pass PASS     Pass phrase for the private key (SSL/SSH)
     --post301       Do not switch to GET after following a 301 redirect (H)
     --post302       Do not switch to GET after following a 302 redirect (H)
     --post303       Do not switch to GET after following a 303 redirect (H)
 -#, --progress-bar  Display transfer progress as a progress bar
     --proto PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols
     --proto-redir PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols on redirect
 -x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port
     --proxy-anyauth Pick "any" proxy authentication method (H)
     --proxy-basic   Use Basic authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-digest  Use Digest authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-negotiate Use Negotiate authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-ntlm    Use NTLM authentication on the proxy (H)
 -U, --proxy-user USER[:PASSWORD]  Proxy user and password
     --proxy1.0 HOST[:PORT]  Use HTTP/1.0 proxy on given port
 -p, --proxytunnel   Operate through a HTTP proxy tunnel (using CONNECT)
     --pubkey KEY    Public key file name (SSH)
 -Q, --quote CMD     Send command(s) to server before transfer (F/SFTP)
     --random-file FILE  File for reading random data from (SSL)
 -r, --range RANGE   Retrieve only the bytes within a range
     --raw           Do HTTP "raw", without any transfer decoding (H)
 -e, --referer       Referer URL (H)
 -J, --remote-header-name Use the header-provided filename (H)
 -O, --remote-name   Write output to a file named as the remote file
     --remote-name-all Use the remote file name for all URLs
 -R, --remote-time   Set the remote file's time on the local output
 -X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
     --resolve HOST:PORT:ADDRESS  Force resolve of HOST:PORT to ADDRESS
     --retry NUM   Retry request NUM times if transient problems occur
     --retry-delay SECONDS When retrying, wait this many seconds between each
     --retry-max-time SECONDS  Retry only within this period
 -S, --show-error    Show error. With -s, make curl show errors when they occur
 -s, --silent        Silent mode. Don't output anything
     --socks4 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4 proxy on given host + port
     --socks4a HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4a proxy on given host + port
     --socks5 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS5 proxy on given host + port
     --socks5-hostname HOST[:PORT] SOCKS5 proxy, pass host name to proxy
 -Y, --speed-limit RATE  Stop transfers below speed-limit for 'speed-time' secs
 -y, --speed-time SECONDS  Time for trig speed-limit abort. Defaults to 30
     --ssl           Try SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)
     --ssl-reqd      Require SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)
 -2, --sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)
 -3, --sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)
     --ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw to improve interop (SSL)
     --stderr FILE   Where to redirect stderr. - means stdout
     --tcp-nodelay   Use the TCP_NODELAY option
 -t, --telnet-option OPT=VAL  Set telnet option
     --tftp-blksize VALUE  Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512)
 -z, --time-cond TIME  Transfer based on a time condition
 -1, --tlsv1         Use TLSv1 (SSL)
     --trace FILE    Write a debug trace to the given file
     --trace-ascii FILE  Like --trace but without the hex output
     --trace-time    Add time stamps to trace/verbose output
     --tr-encoding   Request compressed transfer encoding (H)
 -T, --upload-file FILE  Transfer FILE to destination
     --url URL       URL to work with
 -B, --use-ascii     Use ASCII/text transfer
 -u, --user USER[:PASSWORD]  Server user and password
     --tlsuser USER  TLS username
     --tlspassword STRING TLS password
     --tlsauthtype STRING  TLS authentication type (default SRP)
 -A, --user-agent STRING  User-Agent to send to server (H)
 -v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
 -V, --version       Show version number and quit
 -w, --write-out FORMAT  What to output after completion
     --xattr        Store metadata in extended file attributes
 -q                 If used as the first parameter disables .curlrc

Resources